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Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Fasting


I think it's safe to assume that Utah's Strongest Men are not big advocates of daily fasting.
The fitness fads are constantly changing. For years "experts" have advocated 5-6 smaller feedings as the superior way to optimize body composition and health. It certainly works for a lot of people,but of course you need to factor in their activity levels, goals, and total nutrient intake. To be honest, unless you are a bodybuilder who is trying to become super (unhealthily) lean, I don't think you have to be that precise about your eating habits. As a youngster I devoured the old Strength and Health magazines as they came out each month. In fact, I still about 10 years worth of them in a trunk somewhere. Bobs Hoffman, the owner, publisher, world's healthiest man, father of world weightlifting, world champion polka dancer,...etc. had me believing that diet of Hi-Proteen (soy protein), Energol (germ oil) and Livital (desicated liver, man it was gross tasting) was essential to my physical progress. I saved my lunch money, along with whatever other money I could earn or find, to buy the stuff. Once I pestered my parents long enough to take my brother and I to York to visit the York Barbell Club, it wasn't too far from our home in western Pennsylvania. I was shocked when I was able to meet John Grimek who, while probably  in his 60's at the time, looked amazing. I lamented the fact that I wasn't able to consistently raise enough  money to buy all the supplements I needed. He looked me straight in the eyes and gruffly told me that I would be smarter to spend my money on food. I was even more shocked when I saw Bob Hoffman eating out of a bucket of Kentucky Fried chicken and heard some of the top ranked lifters of that era talking about how much beer they had drank the night before. That was the end of my naive nutritional innocence. I found out a lot of great athletes ate a wide variety of food and weren't too particular about it.

 I have always been an advocate of periodic fasting, though not really as described in the article below.  I'm not sure about the idea of daily fasting, although the results stated in the article are interesting. Obviously this type of eating regimen is geared towards health and fitness and not performance enhancement. At least not getting as big and strong as possible. I personally have fasted for spiritual and health reasons and don't find an "entire day" to be a "torturous affair" although I'm not convinced that doing it daily is necessary or beneficial. Warriors work hard, play hard, and eat whne they can.


We've been told since we were children that we need to eat three square meals a day. But new research shows that we don't need to be eating throughout the course of the day. And in fact, it might even be undermining our health. These insights have given rise to what's known as "intermittent fasting" — the daily restriction of meals and caloric intake. Here's why some health experts believe you should starve yourself just a little bit each day.

Most people associate fasting with juice cleanses or religious rituals — a torturous affair that lasts an entire day if not longer, and the sort of thing that should only be done a couple of times each year. But fasts can encompass any number of different strategies, including routines that simply limit the times when you eat each day, or on certain days of the week.

For example, there's Alternate Day Fasting (ADF) and the Two Day Diet (also known as the 5:2 diet). We'll get into these in just a bit, but what's really starting to take off is daily fasting — the practice of eating only during an 8-hour window of your choosing, and then fasting for the remaining 16 hours of the day.

While some might be inclined to cynically dismiss intermittent fasting as just another fad diet, the scientific evidence in support of daily fasting (or any fasting for that matter) is compelling. Restricting caloric intake for extended periods seems to do a remarkable job of staving off a number of health problems, while yielding some definite benefits.

Now before we get into the details, it's important to note that intermittent fasting is not for everyone. Before you try any of this, you should probably check with your doctor to make sure you're healthy enough to go without food for an extended period — even if it's just a 16 hour stretch. It's also important to note that intermittent fasting is not really meant as a way to lose weight — though it happens to be a good way to regulate food intake.

Time restricted feeding

One of the most important studies in this area was conducted just last year at Salk's Regulatory Biology Laboratory. In an experiment, biologist Satchidananda Panda and colleagues restricted the feeding of mice to — conveniently enough — an 8-hour period each day. The researchers were attempting to study whether obesity and metabolic diseases like diabetes were the result of high-fat diets, or from the disruption of metabolic cycles.

To that end, Panda gave the mice lots of fat to eat. In fact, 60% of the calories consumed were derived from fat (which was meant to simulate foods like chips and ice-cream). The researchers also created a control group that ate the same thing, but these mice could eat any time they wanted (interestingly, as nocturnal creatures, they ate half their meals at night, while grazing on the remainders during the day). As for the restricted group, their 8-hour window was at night.

One hundred days later, the free-for-all group was a mess. They gained weight, developed high cholesterol, high blood glucose, and experienced liver damage and diminished motor control (ouch).

But as for the mice who practiced the intermittent fast, they weighed 28% less and showed no signs of adverse health. And what's remarkable is that both groups ate the same amount of calories from the same fatty food. Not only that, the fasting mice also performed better on exercise tests — including a control group of mice who were eating normal food. (You can check out the study for yourself: "Extended Daily Fasting Overrides Harmful Effects of a High-Fat Diet: Study May Offer Drug-Free Intervention to Prevent Obesity and Diabetes")

As a result, the scientists concluded that time restricted feeding can prevent metabolic diseases — and without having to restrict caloric intake. At least in mice. They theorize that eating willy-nilly throughout the day creates metabolic disturbances to naturally occurring metabolic cycles. Essentially, the scientists say that spreading caloric intake throughout the day perturbs metabolic pathways that are regulated by circadian clocks and nutrient sensors.

It's possible to extrapolate this to humans, too. Though anthropologists are not entirely sure how our paleolithic ancestors ate, it's unlikely that they sat down for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Those are eating routines from a more modern era — and even then, it's likely that only the wealthy could afford multiple meals in one day. In all likelihood, our ancestors ate one or two big meals a day. And that was it. Consequently, their bodies were likely both adapted for and accustomed to going for extended periods without food during much of the day.

Go Mode

Other studies point to similar conclusions. Take the work of Valter Longo, for example. Longo, who works out of the University of Southern California's Longevity Institute, has studied the effects of intermittent fasting on IGF-1, an insulin-like growth factor.

When we consume food, this hormone keeps our body in "go" mode, where our cells are driven to reproduce and facilitate growth. This is great when we need it, but not so much when we're trying to keep off the weight. Moreover, while it's good for growth, it can also speed up the aging process. And in fact, Longo compares the effect to "driving along with your foot hard on the accelerator pedal."

Intermittent fasting, on the other hand, decreases the body's expression of IGF-1. And it also appears to switch on a number of DNA repair genes. Restricted feeding, says Longo, makes our body go from "growth mode" to "repair mode."

Just As Effective as Caloric Restriction

Other research by Krista Varady of University of Illinois in Chicago has looked at the way fasting impacts chronic diseases, like cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Her work, which involves both animal and human test subjects, seeks to compare the effects of intermittent fasting with caloric restriction (an extended low-calorie dietary routine that has known health benefits).

What her animal models showed was that intermittent fasting (in this case, alternate-day fasting) lowers the chances of acquiring diabetes, while also lowering fasting glucose and insulin concentrations — and at rates comparable to caloric restriction.

Her tests on human subjects were not much different, which showed greater insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Her evidence suggested that fasting can increase HDL-cholesterol (that's the good kind), while lowering triacylglycerol concentrations. Fasting had no effect on blood pressure. She concluded her study by suggesting that fasting can modulate several risk factors that are known to bring about various chronic diseases.

Moreover, her study showed that intermittent fasting can offer many of the same benefits of caloric restriction, which includes a slight increase in longevity (though this has been recently thrown into question) and increased insulin sensitivity.

Varady recommends an alternate-day fasting routine in which there's no need to restrict the quantity of foods for one day (yes, really), followed by a day in which no more than 600 calories can be consumed.

Another typical intermittent fast is the so-called "5:2 diet." People using this strategy are encouraged to eat normally for five days of the week, but two days are set aside for the fast in which no more than 600 calories are consumed.

Other benefits

And there's more. In addition to Varady's study, other research shows that intermittent fasting can offer neuroprotective benefits. Studies on humans show that it can help with weight loss and reduce disease risk.

And incredibly, there may even be a link to cancer. Another study study by Varady and M. Hellerstein on mice indicated that both caloric restriction and alternate-day fasting can reduce cancer risk and reduce cell proliferation rates.

Short-term fasting can induce growth hormone secretion in men (which is a problem for guys after they hit 30), it reduces oxidative stress (fasting prevents oxidative damage to cellular proteins by decreasing the accumulation of oxidative radicals in the cell — what contributes to aging and disease onset), and it's good for brain health, mental well-being, and clarity.

And as a study published just last week has shown, restricting calories can also lengthen telomeres — which has a protective effect on our DNA and genetic material, which in turn helps with cellular health (i.e. it helps us extend healthy lifespan).

And for people who wish to maintain a ketogenic diet — a metabolic state in which the body is in a perpetual state of fat burning instead of carbohydrate burning — intermittent fasting is a good way to help the body stay in ketosis.

Not As Hard As It Sounds

I actually practice daily intermittent fasting, and I've been doing it for about five months. Admittedly, the first week was difficult, but now I don't give it a second thought. My cravings have largely disappeared, but my stomach starts to grumble in the late stages. I feel great, though, my mood is upbeat, and I'm often full of energy (I also do strength-and-conditioning work, which helps).

My particular routine — which is quite typical for daily intermittent fasters — sees me having my last meal of the day sometime between 6:00 and 8:00 PM. But then I don't eat until 1:00 PM the next day. My lunch is usually a big deal, and I savor every bite (a neat benefit of the daily fast is how much better food suddenly tastes). Likewise, my dinner is also a grand affair. So I basically eat two solid meals each day, and fast for a 16 hour stretch.

I also drink coffee and tea during the fasting period (both without cream and sugar). These are zero calorie foods that have little impact on the body's metabolism. And not only that, caffeine is a known appetite suppressant.

Lastly, I also tend to eat very little carbs. As many people know, carbohydrates are notorious for creating food cravings — carbs cause a kind of negative feedback loop. But as all this new research it's showing, it's not necessarily the kind of foods you eat. Rather, it's the fasting that's important. But that said, I wouldn't tempt fate; it's probably prudent to keep the foods healthy.

As a final note, given that this is a restrictive dietary routine, it's important to keep our health goals in mind as they relate to our daily enjoyment of life. Limiting our eating to such a small window of time could certainly be construed as a draconian measure. If a routine like this threatens to make you miserable, it may simply not be worth the bother.

But for me, it's not a problem, and fits in rather nicely with my overall health strategies.



Thursday, January 24, 2013

Amazing (and maybe purposeless ) Skill

This an amazing video. It certainly reflects a lot of practice and physical prowess. But what's the point? It falls under the category of  "whatever turns you on". He's a lot of fun to watch and is entertaining. I just wonder what the purpose is? I mean you can't drag a trampoline around town with you. The Parkour or Free Running skills are much more impressive and actually have some function. (Like running from the law)lol  I like to think that the physical skills we develop have some value in everyday life, or at least could. For example, we know that the Athletic events or Track and Field and we call it here in the United States, evolved from training citizens for war. All of the events can be related to skills needed on the ancient (and even modern) battlefields. It is easy for me to see the utilitarian contributions of lifting or strongman to everyday life as well. Team sports, of course,  teach team work. I like to have a purpose for training and practice. To me this is an amazing parlor trick, but basically a waste of time in my humble opinion. However,I guess if he's having fun, it's none of my business.
Go for it.


Check this out and see what I mean. The art of displacement. Pretty impressive....
 

Monday, January 21, 2013

Teaching Effort

Maximum effort is learned by making maximal attempts.



It has certainly been my experience that most young athletes do not know what maximal effort is. Hard work is understood quite differently by individual athletes. While the approach described in the article below is interesting and seems to have merit for basketball practice or other continuous movement type sports like soccer, it would be cumbersome and  expensive for most programs to implement. For explosive maximal single attempt type sports like football, weightlifting throwing, jumping,..etc. it would have no value. My experience is the best way to teach maximal effort in those contexts is to test w ith maximal single attempts. There are many strength coaches who advocate using rep maxes to project a max. There are a variety of published tables which claim to be able to predict a one rep max from multiple rep maxes. First, I have never seen one of these charts that is accurate. Second, I think it is misguided to avoid one rep maxes. I don't believe that a 1 rep max is inherently dangerous so long as the athlete is properly prepared and has good technique. I have seen and experienced more injuries from multiple rep maxes as fatigue results in a break down of technique, Having athletes complete a one rep max periodically teaches them to give maximum effort as they battle against an uncompromising weight. When you are running and it gets painful, you can just back off with no immediate consequence. If you are under a maximum weight, any backing off is immediately apparent. Maximum effort is a learned skill and can be taught by placing athletes in a situation where the challenge cannot be avoided, under a heavy weight.

There's an old saying that "you can't teach effort." However, at the University of Kentucky, Strength and Conditioning Coach Rock Oliver and Head Men's Basketball Coach John Calipari are attempting to do just that. To teach lessons in effort, the Wildcats' coaches are having players wear heart rate monitors during practices and games.
This year's team has a core comprised mostly of freshmen and a couple of sophomores and early on Calipari noticed that the team found it difficult to put forth the effort he desired. And in monitoring the players' behavior and communicating with them about what it means to play hard, Calipari discovered that the gap between what they perceived as maximum effort and his definition was disturbingly wide. To close this gap, Calipari decided to quantify each player's level of work by having them where a device that measures their "exertion rate, sport zones, caloric expenditure and heart rate."
Calipari writes on his Web site that:
"Because we have very few returning veterans that our new guys can imitate or mimic, we haven't gotten the level of work - conditioning, toughness, effort and exertion - that we need and we expect ... We don't have guys who have been in the system that can show them how hard they have to work. I have had to convince our guys that they aren't working hard enough because they've been under the impression that they are. Each individual thinks they are working hard."
So now when the team practices or players work out, Oliver monitors each player's heart rate and exertion levels on a sideline computer.
"At any point in practice I can look over to him and ask him what the rates are and he can give me the percentages," said Calipari. "He can tell me if they're going at 80 percent or 90 percent or whatever it is. If I think the rates are too low - if we are in the 70s or 80s - we get on the baseline and we run to get them back in the 90s ... Because we are able to read their heart rates, now we know who is maxing out in practice and who is hiding, who thinks they're going hard and who isn't, who is able to push themselves through pain, and who has mental toughness to be special.
"Everybody perceives his exertion level differently. Some feel they are working extremely hard and they're not, and others perceive that they're not working very hard when they really are," he added. "My hope is to get everybody in that second category. I want them to realize what their exertion level is in games compared to what it is in practice, and this device helps us do that."
Calipari said the heart rate monitors are also a teaching tool for him.
"These devices also help me know when to back off as a coach," he said. "The old way of me judging my team was really scientific. If I was tired, I figured they were tired, so I backed up. You laugh, but that's the way I did it because we had no other way of doing it. We didn't have many injuries, so it worked, but I appreciate this device because it validates what I've done over my career. As you all know, I'm always concerned about someone's health and injury, and this device shows that if we're going four or five days in the max zone, I know it's time for me to back up."


Thursday, January 17, 2013

Who Me? Never!



Wow. What a time in the sports world here in the U.S. of A.  When has there ever been such a perfect storm of deceit colliding with truth? Here are multiple reminders that telling the truth works best in the long run. The truth always comes out, even though it may take some time. Adam Nelson is a testament to the positive side of that principal as 8 years after the fact, he is awarded his gold medal.  Unfortunately, the moment of victory and the benefits it could have awarded him will never be realized. Cheaters can come clean, but they can't restore the purity of the competition or their image. What was Manti Teo thinking? An imaginary girlfriend? One who dies no less? There is no upside to this story. In time the full truth will come out. Meanwhile has there ever been more food for cynics?
What do we have left to look up to in the world of sports? Even the honest and clean athletes are viewed with skepticism, and rightly so, as the public trust has been betrayed so many times.



Marion Jones has yet to recover from her fall from grace.



Adam wins, but many opportunities have been stolen from him and cannot be restored.

Tuesday, January 15, 2013

Technical "Absolutes"




We have posted before about the relativity of technical "absolutes". While there are certainly some universal constants in lifting, throwing, or any physical skill; there are also times when an individual's particular strengths or proportions allow for, or even dictate, deviations from the standard ideal. Take this clip of Ilya Ilin for example. He appears to "loop" the bar slightly around his knees as he transitions from the first to the second pull. He definitely imparts some horizontal motion to the bar. The ideal is a smooth, straight, vertical pull with a slight rearward trajectory. Certainly no one intentionally teaches a horizontal swinging of the bar. Having said that, who would try to "correct" a lifter who can manhandle 240 kg. in this manner? Obviously Ilya has inhuman strength levels and this little "swing" works well for him. It's like the Dimas head snap at the finish of the pull. Certainly not text book and not what you would teach a new lifter. But who can argue with his success?


There are examples of lifters who pull with rounded backs or bent arms. They are rare and should not be copied, but for various reasons, these deviations work for them. Teach the rules, but be wise enough to allow for exceptions in some athletes.

Thursday, January 10, 2013

Complexes





We have posted some stuff on complexes before. I love these for conditioning, variety, technical work, and mental toughness. Completing a strong jerk after a clean and 2 front squats is tough physical and mental work. It can be made tougher by increasing the number of cleans and/or jerks for example. Just don't get carried away on the reps ala crossfit style or it becomes counterproductive. The variety of movement combinations are up to your creativity and needs. To increase pulling power and explosive extension strength I like things like a pull, a power clean, and a hang squat clean for example. Again you can up the reps up to 3 or so each if conditioning is a need. Pull, power snatch, overhead squats are another great combination. We published one of the first articles about these lifts in the NSCA Journal back in 1990 vol.12, no. 1. These are not more widely used because they require a sound knowlege of technique and are just plain hard. They are best done during noncompetitive phases of training. Try some complexes in your training.

Sunday, January 6, 2013

The Secret: 1. Show up 2. Train Hard 3. Repeat for Ten Years



Oliver blowing away a 190 lb. Dumbell 


Below is a post I read on a site operated by Dan Bell. I don't know Dan personally, nor do I know much about him, but I like this. I like simple formulas that are stripped of fat and pretense. I have always preached a similar philosophy to my athetes. The first rule of success is showing up. Hard work can mean different things to different people depending on their level of experience and the nature of the sport they are working to succeed in, but no doubt, hard work is a given for success at any level. The idea of repeating 10 years is a point well made. Of course there are some things where 7 or 8 years may do, but the point is that true excellence in anything is a long term proposition. In this day and age of internet, text messaging, and fast foods many would-be athletes don't have the patience to continue to work hard for the length of time required.

One of the most important things to understand about succeeding at anything is knowing how long it will take. If you plan to go to college, you know you’ll be there for four years, at least, to get a bachelor’s degree. If you want to continue to medical school, plan on four years there, plus another three to eight years studying your specialty. Mastery is measured in years, not months. In his book Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell makes the case for ten thousand hours or ten years. In my experience, he is on the mark.
That’s right, if you want to be a great weightlifter (or carpenter or philosopher or midwife) you have to put in ten years. I know that sounds like a looonnnng time when you’re just starting out. But think about baseball. A player starts in Little League at ten years old. By the time he gets out of high school he’s already got eight years of practice and training. If he’s drafted by a major league team, it’s at least two years in the minors, probably more, before he gets a shot at the Bigs. At no point in the process does he have to wonder how long it takes. He knows. It’s the system he’s come up in and he understands it. It’s the system for a reason. It takes that long to make a Major League baseball player that you’d pay hard-earned money to see.
So if you want to be a great weightlifter, plan on ten years. There’s a lot to do. You have to learn the lifts and become proficient enough to move to a heavier training load. You have to acquire and perfect the lifestyle habits that will aid in recovery and further, heavier training. You have to gain competitive experience. You have to hit PR’s, celebrate for a few minutes, then come back and do that hundreds of times. You have to keep showing up and working hard, again and again and again and … well, you get the idea.
The details will get filled in as you go. But the basics are the same as for anything else you want to master: Show up. Work hard. Repeat for Ten Years.

Wednesday, January 2, 2013

Sergio Oliva, R.I.P.



We have been a little slow about getting out new information over the holiday season this year. Also a little late in paying tribute to an Iron Game legend who passed away just a few months ago. We have featured Sergio's pictures and made mention of his lifting backround in the past. He was truly a unique, one of a kind, person who we will never see the likes of again.  I never had the privilege to meet Sergio in person, but, like many of my generation, his photos (like those above) inspired us. He was known as the Myth and I have to admit that the first time I saw pictures of him it was hard to imagine that he was a real person. His size and proportions were truly mythical.  Below is a short bio.....

Sergio Oliva (July 4, 1941 – November 12, 2012) was a bodybuilder known as "The Myth". This sobriquet was given to him by bodybuilder/writer Rick Wayne. Wayne had begun calling Oliva "The Myth" "(because everyone who saw him at the 1967 Montreal World's Fair said he was "Just unbelievable")".[1]
Oliva was born in Cuba on July 4, 1941. At 12, he worked with his father in the sugar cane fields of Guanabacoa. When Oliva was 16, his father suggested that he enlist in Fulgencio Batista's army. In the absence of a birth certificate, the recruiting officer took the senior Oliva's word that his son was old enough to enlist in the fight against communism.
After losing the war to Fidel Castro, Oliva stayed local and took to hanging out at the beach. There, he met a fellow sun worshipper, who invited him to the local weightlifting club. After just six months of training Oliva was doing clean and jerks with over 300 lb and totaling 1000 lb in the three Olympic lifts at a bodyweight of 195 lb, considered a middle-heavyweight.
In 1962, the National Weightlifting Championship for Cuba was won by Alberto Rey Games Hernandez; Sergio Oliva took second place. Because Games received an injury, Oliva was chosen to represent Cuba at the 1962 Central American and Caribbean Games hosted in Kingston, Jamaica.
During his stay in Jamaica, Oliva sneaked out of his quarters while the guards were distracted. He ran at top speed until he was safely inside the American consulate. Arriving breathlessly, he demanded and received political asylum. Soon, 65 other Cuban nationals followed him, including Castro's entire weightlifting team. Soon afterward, Oliva was living in Miami, Florida, working as a TV repairman.[2]
In 1963 Oliva moved to Chicago, Illinois. There he worked at a local steel mill and began working out at the Duncan YMCA. Working 10-12 hour days at the steel mill and putting in another 2.5–3 hours at the gym gave Oliva very little time for anything else. Soon the bodybuilding grapevine was abuzz with gossip about a Cuban powerhouse who lifted more than any of the local Olympic champs. Oliva won his first bodybuilding competition the Mr. Chicagoland contest in 1963. Then he was successful again at the Mr. Illinois in 1964 but he lost in 1965 at the AAU Jr. Mr. America winning 2nd place even though he won the trophy for "Most Muscular". In 1966, he won the AAU Jr. Mr. America and again he claimed the trophy for "Most Muscular". He then joined the International Federation of BodyBuilders IFBB in which he won both the professional Mr. World and Mr. Universe Contests. In 1967 he won the prestigious Mr. Olympia contest, making him the undisputed world champion of bodybuilding.
Oliva then went on to win the Mr. Olympia title three years in a row, at 5 feet 10 inches and at a contest weight of around 225 lbs. Oliva's 1968 Olympia title, his second, was won unopposed. Most considered him to be unbeatable at the time. The following year a young Arnold Schwarzenegger lost to Oliva as he challenged him for the 1969 Olympia crown. However, Schwarzenegger won his first Mr. Olympia title by edging the Myth the following year. Oliva challenged Schwarzenegger for the 1972 Olympia, but lost a controversial decision. Oliva came out of retirement to enter the 1984 Mr. Olympia, finishing in eighth place. Though 'the Myth' still sported an impressive physique, he was by then well past his prime. While Schwarzenegger dominated the bodybuilding world throughout much of the 1970s, in both media coverage and contest wins, many fans still consider Oliva to have had the greatest physique of all time.
He served the city of Chicago as a police officer for more than 25 years.
In 1986, Sergio survived being shot by his then-wife Arleen Garrett. He sustained 5 bullet wounds.
His son, Sergio Oliva Jr, is following in his father's footsteps into competitive bodybuilding in Chicago, Illinois.
Oliva co-starred with Mil Máscaras in a Mexican wrestling movie in 1975 called El Poder Negro (Black Power), in which he played a super-strong dockworker who runs afoul of the local crime syndicate and helps Mil Máscaras to bring them to justice. His co-star was Venezuelan actress and singer Lila Morillo.[3]
In 1977, Oliva starred in a second Mexican action film (this time a wrestling/ western hybrid) called Los Temibles ("The Fearful Ones") aka El centauro negro.
The character Biscuit Oliva in the Japanese manga and anime Baki the Grappler was closely based on Oliva's real-life personality and appearance.[4]
Sergio Oliva died on November 12, 2012, from apparent kidney failure. He was 71. The death of Oliva is significant in the respect that it represents the first death of any of the 13 Mr. Olympia winners, the ultimate professional bodybuilding competition held every year since 1964.[5]
Distinctions
The first non-white athlete to win Mr. America, Mr. World, Mr. International, Mr. Universe, Mr. Olympia.
The second bodybuilder to win the Mr. Olympia competition.
The only bodybuilder to ever defeat Arnold Schwarzenegger in a Mr Olympia contest, 1969.
[edit]Bodybuilding titles

1963 Mr Chicago
1964 Mr Illinois
1964 Mr America – AAU, 7th
1965 Junior Mr America – AAU, 2nd
1965 Junior Mr America – AAU, Most Muscular
1965 Mr America – AAU, 4th
1965 Mr America – AAU, Most Muscular,
1966 Junior Mr America – AAU, Winner
1966 Junior Mr America – AAU, Most Muscular
1966 Mr America – AAU, 2nd
1966 Mr America – AAU, Most Muscular,
1966 Mr World – IFBB, Overall Winner
1966 Mr World – IFBB, Tall, 1st
1966 Mr Universe – IFBB Winner
1966 Mr. Olympia – IFBB, 4th
1967 Mr. Olympia – IFBB, Winner
1967 Universe – IFBB, Overall Winner
1968 Mr. Olympia – IFBB, Winner
1969 Mr. Olympia – IFBB, Winner
1970 Mr World – AAU, Pro Tall, 2nd
1970 Mr. Olympia – IFBB, 2nd
1971 Universe – Pro - NABBA, Tall, 2nd
1972 Mr. Olympia – IFBB, 2nd
1973 Mr International – IFBB, Professional, 1st
1974 Mr International – WBBG, Professional, 1st
1975 Olympus – WBBG, Winner
1976 Olympus – WBBG, Winner
1977 World Championships – WABBA, Professional, 1st
1978 Olympus – WBBG, Winner
1980 World Championships – WABBA, Professional, 1st
1981 Pro World Cup – WABBA, Winner
1984 Mr. Olympia – IFBB, 8th
1984 Pro States Championships – WABBA
1985 Mr. Olympia – IFBB, 8th